The presented book is an endeavour to discuss and analyse systematically the multi-dimensional facts of the History of Tamils in Sri Lanka. In recent past in Sri Lanka, a multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multi-lingual and multi-cultural county of this subcontinent faced historic conflict between ethnic Sinhalese and ethnic Tamils which ultimately led to the formation of a violent /extremist organisation, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE) in early 1970s. At the time of Independence several factors were added and around the independence it became a burning citizenship issue between India and Sri Lanka. Often with the tacit consent of authorities public humiliation of Tamil community increased due to vote bank politics that took a violent shape in all walks of life. From early 1980s till May 2009, Sri Lanka witnessed an unparallel ethnic declared war led by LTTE. Today, although there is no ethnic conflicts in Sri Lanka, Tamils are yet to be recognised as a mainstream race of the island.